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Production of cobalt

Profiling the world's largest cobalt-producing countrie

According to data from the US Geological Survey (USGS), around 140,000 metric tonnes of cobalt were produced worldwide during 2019 - more than 70% of which cam from a single country, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in Central Africa Production of Cobalt-60 Radioactive cobalt-60 was discovered by Glenn T. Seaborg and John Livingood at the University of California - Berkeley in the late 1930's. By bombarding cobalt 59 with neutrons, in a nuclear reactor, an additional neutron can be captured by the nucleus converting it into cobalt 60 In 2020, total worldwide mine production of cobalt totaled 140,000 metric tons. Recently, worldwide production of cobalt has exceeded consumption which has decreased prices for the mineral

Production and processing Cobalt occurs typically in nature in cobaltite, smaltite, and erythrite minerals. It is mined along with nickel, silver, lead, copper, and iron ore and is often obtained as a by-product. The extraction of cobalt can be done using solvent extraction Top Cobalt Production by Country 1. Democratic Republic of Congo. The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is by far the world's largest producer of... 2. Russia. Russia's cobalt production remained flat in 2020, coming in at 6,300 MT. With concerns about DRC cobalt... 3. Australia. Australia saw a. The main ores of cobalt are cobaltite, erythrite, glaucodot and skutterudite (see above), but most cobalt is obtained by reducing the cobalt by-products of nickel and copper mining and smelting. Since cobalt is generally produced as a by-product, the supply of cobalt depends to a great extent on the economic feasibility of copper and nickel mining in a given market Today, some cobalt is produced specifically from one of a number of metallic-lustered ores, such as cobaltite (CoAsS). The element is, however, more usually produced as a by-product of copper and nickel mining. The Copperbelt in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Zambia yields most of the global cobalt production

Production of Cobalt-60 - Radioactive Isotope

  1. ing industries. There are several methods that can be used to separate cobalt from nickel or copper. For example, froth flotation..
  2. Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processes utilize cobalt (Co) or iron (Fe) based catalysts to convert syngas into liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The distribution of carbon products can be predicted using the Anderson-Schulz-Flory (ASF) model that depends on the chain-growth probability
  3. Cobalt (Co) is a metal used in numerous diverse commercial, industrial, and military applications, many of which are strategic and critical. On a global basis, the leading use of cobalt is in rechargeable battery electrodes. Superalloys, which are used to make parts for gas turbine engines, are another major use for cobalt
  4. ing industry has not been calm in recent days
  5. Annual world production in 2013 was 120,000 tonne cobalt metal product. China continues to be the world's largest producer, mainly from cobalt-rich ore imported from the Congo (Kinshasa). Australia ranks 9th in world production at 3,900 tonne cobalt
  6. In the early 21st century, China was the leading producer of refined cobalt, most of which originated in Congo (Kinshasa). Other important producers included Russia, Australia, and the Philippines. Prior to World War I most of the world's production of cobalt was consumed in the ceramic and glass industries
  7. erals are cobaltite (CoAsS), smaltite (CoAs 2), and erythrite [Co 3 (AsO 4) 2.8H 2 O]. Cobalt often occurs in association with nickel, silver, lead, copper, and iron ores

Like Russia, most of the produced cobalt in Australia comes as a by-product of copper and nickel mining. Due to environmental circumstances, the Philippines Government decided to cut down on cobalt production, which may continue in the future, to retain environmental sustainability (Ober, 2017; U.S. Geological Survey, 2018). 4. Materials and method Among those isotopes producible by irradiation of special target materials (cobalt-60, uranium-232, plutonium-238, and curium-244) cobalt-60, though easy to produce, requires a special design for the heat source generator because much of its emitted energy is penetrating gamma radiation SVOLT has started series production of its novel cobalt-free nickel-manganese battery cells (NMX) in Jintan, China. The cells could also be produced in the planned plant in Saarland for the European market by the end of 2023. According to SVOLT, two sizes of NMX batteries (115 Ah and 226 Ah), wh

Cobalt mine production world total 2020 Statist

Cobalt-60 (60 Co) is a synthetic radioactive isotope of cobalt with a half-life of 5.2713 years. It is produced artificially in nuclear reactors. Deliberate industrial production depends on neutron activation of bulk samples of the monoisotopic and mononuclidic cobalt isotope 5 Annual cobalt production in the EU is around 2 300 tonnes, while demand is already about nine times higher. As the gap between supply and demand is expected to increase in the next decade, the EU will continue to depend on imports for the foreseeable future

@article{osti_10152247, title = {Production of cobalt-60}, author = {Bunch, W L}, abstractNote = {Cobalt samples frequently are irradiated in nuclear reactors to produce gamma sources and can be irradiated as integral flux monitors because of the long half-life of the isotope produced. At the present time a small cobalt sample is being irradiated within the KW Reactor Snout facility for future. The global production of cobalt has increased over the period 2011-2018, as shown in Fig. 2.The data given in Fig. 3 indicates that the increase in global production has been sourced almost entirely from the DRC, which in 2018 produced about 60% of the world's cobalt (see Fig. 3).This concentration of primary cobalt production in the DRC is mirrored by the concentration of refinery. COBALT-60 SOURCE PRODUCTION . Production of the cobalt-60 sealed sources occurs in high-technology processing facilities and under strict quality control systems. After removal from the reactor the cobalt-60 is loaded into containers for shipment to a source manufacturing facility. Upon receipt measuring the cobalt-6

Cobalt: Properties, Production, and Applications - Matmatc

Top Cobalt Production by Country: A Guide for Investors IN

China is the world's largest electric car market, accounting for 1.2 million - 56% of all electric vehicles sold in 2018. China also accounts for 99% of sales of electric trucks, buses, motorcycles and scooters. The US came a distant second with 361,000 new electric cars sold in 2018, almost half of which were the new Tesla 3 model A review of why new technologies are going to drive the future of cobalt recovery and production. Background of Cobalt: Cobalt, the element that is just starting to create a lot of buzz; from the auto industry to electronics production, the popularity of cobalt is growing rapidly - chiefly for its use in rechargeable batteries.As global demand for cobalt increases, current sources of cobalt. A method for producing metal oxide from a metal salt selected from nickel hydroxide, cobalt hydroxide, mixed nickel-cobalt hydroxide, nickel carbonate, cobalt carbonate, mixed nickel-cobalt carbonate and combinations thereof includes providing a mixture of the metal salt, mixing the metal salt with a binder selected from the group consisting of inorganic binder, organic binder and combinations. DOI: 10.1016/j.mineng.2020.106450 Corpus ID: 225330677. Production of cobalt from copper-cobalt ores on the African Copperbelt - An overview @article{Crundwell2020ProductionOC, title={Production of cobalt from copper-cobalt ores on the African Copperbelt - An overview}, author={F. Crundwell and N. D. Preez and B. Knights}, journal={Minerals Engineering}, year={2020}, volume={156}, pages. New large-scale production route for synthesis of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide Katja Fröhlich1 & Evgeny Legotin1 & Frank Bärhold2 & Atanaska Trifonova1 Received: 1 February 2017/Revised: 9 May 2017/Accepted: 10 May 2017/Published online: 7 June 2017 # The Author(s) 2017. This article is an open access publicatio

Cobalt - Properties - Price - Applications - Productio

  1. Cobalt and cobalt compounds can occur in the wastewater during the production of ceramics. If piezo ceramics, dish products and sanitary ceramics are produced, the wastewater can be discharged if a defined percentage of the wastewater has been reused for the production 1.. Cobalt salts have a carcinogenic effect when absorbed by inhalation, and in the event of oral uptake have a health.
  2. ed in 20 countries around the world, with the largest supply co
  3. e B 12
  4. Aspects of the production of cobalt-blue glass in Egypt (Rehren 2001, A'metry 43) Download. Aspects of the production of cobalt-blue glass in Egypt (Rehren 2001, A'metry 43) Thilo Rehren. Related Papers. Jackson, C.M. and Nicholson, P.T. 2007. Chapter 5: Compositional analysis of the vitreous materials found at Amarna. in P.T. Nicholson.
  5. ers alone are.
  6. In 2017, the world's battery makers used 41,000 tonnes of cobalt (a third of total production). By 2025, this is expected to increase to 117,000 tonnes. The surge in production will increase the.

The underlying driver for both lithium and cobalt demand is the EV revolution, which is gathering pace. The latest estimates from McKinsey's Future Mobility Initiative suggests that global EV production will increase from 3.2 million units in 2017 to 13 to 18 million units by 2025 ultimately reaching 26 to 36 million units in 2030 Cobalt production in Madagascar was suspended to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Increased production from recently started operations in Congo (Kinshasa) was more than offset by reduced production at other operations in response to low prices and restrictions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic SVOLT starts the cathode material production for cobalt-free NMX battery cells at the Jintan plant in China. SVOLT President and General Manager Hongxin Yang..

Fiberglass Plugs, Patterns, & Molds | Accurate PatternModest drop of cobalt blue transforms ABSOLUT new limited

In January 2021, the pilot production of 10 tonnes of cobalt-free cathode material was successfully completed in the battery cell factory in Jintan. In its current development stage, the cell factory now produces 5,000 tonnes of the main material for cobalt-free battery production per year. Cobalt-free nickel manganese battery cell While cobalt catalysts are selective to long-chain paraffin precursors for synthetic jet- and diesel-fuels, lighter (C 10-) alkane condensates are less valuable for fuel production. Alternatively, iron carbide-based catalysts are suitable for the coproduction of paraffinic waxes alongside liquid (and gaseous) olefin chemicals; however, their. Lithium-Cobalt Batteries: Powering the EV Revolution. Countries across the globe are working towards a greener future and electric vehicles (EVs) are a key piece of the puzzle. In fact, the EV revolution is well underway, rising from 17,000 electric cars in 2010 to 7.2 million in 2019—a 423x increase in less than a decade First Cobalt is one of many Canadian cobalt operations. They focus entirely on cobalt production and refinement, unlike many other companies on this list. This could be a good or bad thing for your stock portfolio, depending on your investment strategy. The company is currently exploring cobalt sourcing options in Idaho as well as in Ontario Artisanal mining of Cobalt is a significant source of production in the Democratic Republic of Congo but does not occur elsewhere. Terrestrial deposits account for all production, but they are a small fraction of the total resource, as the largest concentrations of Cobalt are in seafloor Iron-Manganese nodules and crusts

Cobalt - Wikipedi

  1. The process parameters including the production yield, current efficiency, and energy consumption involved in the production of metallic cobalt, as well as the mechanisms involved in the process, are discussed. Interestingly, we show that water, as the source of hydrogen, can be continuously consumed and regenerated during the process
  2. read Team AFT. With the increasing focus on electric vehicles, demands for cobalt - a key raw material for producing batteries are growing. There is a grim and dark truth behind the global cobalt supply chain
  3. The chart below illustrates our view of how BEV cathode chemistry will develop over the production forecast horizon, capturing the trend towards high nickel, high manganese and low/no cobalt. Of course, the supply chain and battery production localisation have a huge influence on technology selection
  4. Cobalt's use in rechargeable batteries is the fastest growing use. Notably in 2007, the percentage of cobalt use for rechargeable batteries rose to 25% of total cobalt demand from 22% in 2006. World production trend of cobalt is shown in Fig.3 [8,9]. The production of cobalt has been increasing steadily since 1996
  5. Tesla in their impact 2020 report has mentioned utilizing two major blockchain solutions to procure sustainably produced Cobalt and Nickel as raw materials for the production of their electric.
  6. ing that employed child was actually limited, Miller said, but any production entering the supply chain remains an issue for companies consu

Svolt Energy Technology, a subsidiary of Great Wall Motors, announced Friday that its first cobalt-free battery has rolled off the production line, the first of its kind in the world to make it out of the lab and into mass production. The cobalt-free battery has an energy density of 240 wh/kg and a capacity of 115 Ah-MEB, offering high safety. In late 2017, he directed federal agencies to identify new sources of critical minerals and increase domestic mining and production. Cobalt is also among more than two dozen raw materials. The Giant Tenke Fungurume copper mine is one of the largest copper and cobalt mines in the world, producing 182,597 tonnes of copper and 15,436 tonnes of cobalt in 2020. The company said it planned to increase copper production at the mine to 187,300 tonnes to 228,900 tonnes and cobalt production to 16,500 tonnes to 20,100 tonnes this year LetItGo wrote: ↑ July 12th, 2021, 9:18 pm EVs will also make the U.S. more dependent on China. Electrifying just half of our auto fleet will require, in rough terms, about nine times current global cobalt production, three times global lithium output, and about two times current copper production

Cobalt - Statistics & Facts Statist

  1. The company has been developing production of cobalt-60 at the Leningrad NPP for more than twenty years, it said, and in 2016 began a project to produce the radioisotope at the Smolensk and Kursk plants. In the autumn of last year, the first additional cobalt absorber was loaded into unit of the Smolensk NPP
  2. Hydrogen electrolysis: cheap, abundant Cobalt Phosphide can replace Platinum. October 24, 2019 by Stanford University. Platinum and iridium are the preferred catalysts for producing hydrogen through electrolysis at scale. But they are expensive and rare, offering serious bottlenecks in hydrogen's plans to replace gas worldwide
  3. Green production of hydrogen-doped faceted cobalt microcrystals using water-assisted molten salt electro-reduction method D. Qiao, K. Xie and A. R. Kamali, Mater. Adv., 2020, 1, 2225 DOI: 10.1039/D0MA00399A This article is.
  4. Sherritt International is a recognized world leader in the production of high purity nickel and cobalt metal from lateritic ore. Mining and refining only in non-conflict jurisdictions, through its Moa Joint Venture, the high quality battery and alloy ready nickel and cobalt produced are used worldwide in stainless steel, specialty steel, chemical and welding applications
  5. Canada Nickel will explore the potential for producing nickel and cobalt products from existing pyrometallurgical processes such as roasting, sulphation roasting, and reduction using electric arc furnaces (utilizing natural gas rather coke or coal as a reductant) with the offgases captured and re-routed to allow the CO 2 be captured by the.
Australia's Newcrest Q2 gold output down marginally

Production of cobalt-55 109 The radiochemical procedure is rapid and efficient. Vander Wal A. M. and Wolding M. G. Thorau 38, 16 Although the recovery of s5Co from the target is (1983).. Approximately two-thirds of global cobalt production happens in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), which also has a significant part of global production in copper, as well as tin, tantalum, tungsten and gold (3TG or conflict minerals). Add greater visibility and efficiency across supply chains Production of cobalt powder for use in cemented carbides requires much more than control of particle size. Particle morphology apparently is also important. Thus, in the production of hard metals, such as cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide, tungsten carbide powder of graded size between approximately 1 μm and 10 μm in particle size is blended. Closest to the claimed invention is a method of producing uranyl sulphate cobalt (II)-ammonium, comprising preparing a re clonage aqueous solution, containing cobalt (II), ammonium, sulfate, crystallization of the desired product from the solution, separating the crystals from the solution (Remy, the Rate of inorganic chemistry. Vol.2 PRODUCTION OF COBALT-60 IN PARR-1/KANUPP (CANDU) Mushtaq Ahmad Isotope Production Division, PINSTECH, Islamabad COBALT-60 Cobalt is a metal element with only one stable isotope: cobalt-59

Rd Congo : ces enfants qui travaillent pour nosCHEVROLET Cobalt specs & photos - 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

Production of Gaseous Olefins from Syngas over a Cobalt

Market analyst Roskill forecasts that cobalt's all-in sustaining cost of production will fall by around 2% y-o-y in 2021, from $23,085/t to $22,600t. In a recent report, Roskill explains that. Air stable cobalt nanoparticles have been prepared continuously at a production rate of 30 g h−1 by a modified flame synthesis method under highly reducing conditions Aims: To investigate whether exposure to cobalt in cobalt plants has any measurable effect on the cardiovascular system. Methods: Occupational, cross sectional study, using a self administered questionnaire, blood pressure measurement, electrocardiography, and laboratory tests in which 203 male workers with at least one year of exposure to cobalt and 94 unexposed controls participated

Cobalt Statistics and Information - USGS

Both are copper-cobalt mines operating in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, source of most of the world's cobalt. S&P Global estimates that global mined cobalt production was 115 kilotonnes in 2017, down slightly from 116 kilotonnes in 2016. Cobalt has been on a tear Cobalt is an essential trace element which is widely distributed in nature. Most of cobalt consumed is used in the manufacture of alloys, and although not released extensively in the environment, it may represent a hazard to human health. In addition, excess dietary cobalt produces toxic effects in In 2016 approximately 60% of cobalt mined was as a by-product of copper, 38% as a by-product of nickel, and the remaining 2% from primary cobalt mines. The main implication of this is that, unlike most base metals, changes to global copper and nickel production are the main determinants of changes in cobalt production rather than the supply. The Mutooroo copper-(cobalt-iron-sulfur) vein deposit was worked for copper from 1887 to 1953 for production of 242 tonne copper metal. Exploration in 2007 identified cobalt, with a resource identified in 2010 of 13.1 Mtonne at 0.14% Co for 17,500 tonne contained cobalt metal (also 0.23 g/t Au, 1.48% Cu and 20% S)

The production of cobalt by manual mining in the

POSSIBILITES FOR PRODUCTION OF COBALT-57 BY THE ELECTRON ACCELERATORS Paivanov S.R., Rajabov O., Inoyatov A.Kh. Institute of Applied Physics of National University of Uzbekistan, Tashkent In this work the results of production of 57Co radionuciide using electron accelerator Cobalt is mainly produced as a by-product at assets that produce copper or nickel. Katanga (65%) is a large-scale copper-cobalt operation in the country's Katanga province, producing cobalt hydroxide and copper cathodes. Mutanda is a large-scale copper and cobalt operation, also in Katanga province, producing cobalt hydroxide and copper. (2000). Effect of cobalt treatments on dry matter production of wheat and DTPA extractable cobalt content in soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis: Vol. 31, No. 9-10, pp. 1275-1286 cobalt production was also affected by price volatility in other marketsmetal . Cobalt is mainly produced as a byproduct or coproduct of copper and nickel, both of which have volatile markets. Cobalt supply responded strongly to the sharp drop in base metal prices during this period

The BMW iX3 electric arrives next summer | Electric HunterMei Wang – JTSI Group – Energy and Materials in St AndrewsMarmota to process ore at its neighbour’s mine - MINING

Cobalt - Department for Energy and Minin

Large-Scale Production of Carbon-Supported Cobalt-Based Functional Nanoparticles for Oxygen Evolution Reaction. Dr. Alexander Bähr, Department for Heterogeneous Catalysis and Sustainable Energy, Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, 45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany Cobalt-55 production was reported in 1938 from alpha irradiation of manganese and has since been reported from many target materials and incident beams. Practically, two reactions are best suited for producing activities of cobalt-55 with few impurities: 58 Ni(p,α) 55 Co and 54 Fe(d,n) 55 Co, which are accessible on low energy cyclotrons New resource hub on responsible sourcing and production of cobalt. 02/06/2020. Cobalt is an essential element in many of today's most important applications, and therefore demand is increasing as is exposure to challenges. This is particularly true for the cobalt supply chain which, due to its complexity, is exposed to multiple responsible. With a production facility located in Kokkola, Finland, Freeport Cobalt has a global sales and distribution network to service the needs of our customers. Freeport Cobalt has long term agreements in place which ensure the stable supply of cobalt products to the market with a commitment to sustainability and social responsibility Production of Cobalt . Cobalt naturally occurs in nickel-bearing laterites and nickel-copper sulfide deposits and, thus, is most often extracted as a by-product of nickel and copper. According to the Cobalt Development Institute, about 48% of cobalt production originates from nickel ores, 37% from copper ores and 15% from primary cobalt production

cobalt processing Uses, Supply, & Facts Britannic

Though Democratic Republic of the Congo cobalt production fluctuated substantially in recent years, it tended to increase through 2000 - 2019 period ending at 77,964 tonnes (metal content) in 2019. The description is composed by our digital data assistant demand for cobalt to increase 60% between 2018 and 2025.2 While the mid to long term cobalt supply shouldnt be constrained, the question of sustainable cobalt production has recently attracted a lot of public attention.3 Around 60 percent of the world's cobalt supply comes from the mineral-rich Katanga copper belt, in th The sustainability of cobalt is an important emerging issue because this critical base metal is an essential component of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles. More than half the world's cobalt mine production comes from the Katanga Copperbelt in DR Congo, with a substantial proportion (estim Cobalt compounds are used to produce oil paints for artists and in ceramic production. Cobalt paints are highly resistant and durable in colour. Turkish green, or blue green paint, made by calcinating cobalt carbonate, chromium oxide and aluminium hydroxide, is employed to paint porcelain. When fused with glass or enamel, cobalt monoxide.

Cobalt - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

1 Introduction. Nickel and cobalt are essential trace elements for prokaryotes and eukaryotes and involved in manifold metabolic processes (see [1, 2] for a review).While the structure and mechanism of many nickel- or cobalt-containing enzymes has been investigated in great detail, only limited information is available on the transport systems that mediate nickel or cobalt uptake into cells. Zhong, L. et al. Cobalt carbide nanoprisms for direct production of lower olefins from syngas. Nature 538 , 84-87 (2016). ADS CAS Article Google Schola

Cobalt is a key component in the production of batteries for electronic devices and electrified vehicles. Most of the global cobalt reserves and production are located in the south of the DR Congo. Project for responsible artisanal cobalt mining in Kolwezi, DR Congo: launching on-site activitie Here, we review cobalt-55 and cobalt-58m as a potential theranostic pair. Radionuclidically pure cobalt-55 and cobalt-58m have been produced on small cyclotrons with high molar activity. In vitro, DOTATOC labeled with cobalt has shown greater affinity for SSTR2 than DOTATOC labeled with gallium and yttrium Mine production: Primary Cu and Co operations drive African cobalt production, Ni projects generate cobalt in ROW World: Mine production, by primary product, and country, 2012 (t Co) 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 Ni Ni/Cu Co Cu PGMs Pb DRC: Co 17k, Cu 43

Primarily focused on cobalt, it has excellent by-products, resulting in a negative estimated production cost of -USD5.03/lb of cobalt, net of by-product credits Zambia hopes to cash in on growing global demand for electric vehicles by stepping up its production and refining of cobalt - a key component of lithium-ion batteries used in those vehicles. Zambia's advantage is its large deposits of copper, of which cobalt is a by-product 1. Ann Occup Hyg. 2010 Apr;54(3):340-50. doi: 10.1093/annhyg/meq002. Epub 2010 Feb 11. Skin deposition of nickel, cobalt, and chromium in production of gas turbines and space propulsion components

Herein, we explore the effect of the cobalt (Co) coordination environment on the electrochemical production of H2O2. The detailed investigation on N-, P-, and S-coordinated Co catalysts (Co1N1N3, Co1P1N3, and Co1S1N3) demonstrates that changing the coordination environment evidently affects the H2O2 selectivity, and the S-coordinated Co. The production process of cobalt-60 was simulated by a particle accelerator in the energy range of 5 to 100 MeV, particle beam current of 1 mA, and irradiation time of 1 hour to perform yield, activity of reaction, and integral yield for charged particle-induced reactions. Based on nuclear reaction processes, the obtained results in the.

Large-Scale Production of Carbon-Supported Cobalt-Based Functional Nanoparticles for Oxygen Evolution Reaction Alexander Bähr,[a] Hilke Petersen,[b] and Harun Tüysüz*[a] A series of Co-based nanoparticles supported on activated carbon was synthesized by using waste tea leaves as a template as well as a sustainable carbon source. The crystal. Hydro), bulk cobalt-60 production was initiated in the four Pickering A CANDU reactors located east of Toronto. This was the first full scale production of millions of curies of cobalt-60 per year. As the demand and acceptance of sterilization of medical products grew, MDS Nordion expande Mass-Production of Mesoporous MnCo 2 O 4 Spinels with Manganese(IV)- and Cobalt(II)-Rich Surfaces for Superior Bifunctional Oxygen Electrocatalysis Wenhai Wang World's Top Miner Charges Into Cobalt. BHP Billiton Ltd ., the world's biggest miner, is advancing plans to add production of a key cobalt material used in rechargeable batteries to boost its. Immobilized inulinases have been used for many processes, especially for the sugar production through inulin hydrolysis, yielding fructose and fructooligosaccharides, which could be used as functional ingredient 26. In this work a new application for copper and cobalt aluminate oxides was proposed, i.e., as support for inulinase immobilization The production of a cobalt sulphate salt is expected to require similar impurity-removal steps. Presented at the Alta Metallurgical Conference, 19 to 25 May 2019, Perth, Australia . Figure 4 Typical flowsheet showing impurity-removal steps for cobalt production on the African Copper Belt